Re: La Historia del Pais Vasco según los vascos y según las crónicas antiguas.
Insertado por iñaki urioste arana en fecha May 07, 19103 at 20:54:16:
En respuesta a: La Historia del Pais Vasco según los vascos y según las crónicas antiguas. insertado por Iñigo Arista en fecha July 27, 19101 at 17:46:50:
Como no soy un perito en linguística, ni mucho menos, pero me molesta realmente la facilidad con la que se pueden encontrar conclusiones " interesadas", me limito a transcribir un artículo muy ilustrativo sobre el tema, que en cualquier caso ratifica la antiguedad del pueblo vasco y sus innegables méritos de haber sido el semillero cromagnon de Europa. Le guste o no le guste a otros:
LINGUISTIC CONNECTIONSA Paleolithic LanguageLinguists have believed for some time now that a language exists today which can be traced back to the Stone Age. Just how far back is uncertain, but at least as far back as the Neolithic Age (Renan, 1873). Whether or not it can be traced further back into the Old Stone Age (the Paleolithic) remains to be seen. The huge areas once covered by this language and its close relatives are the very same areas which were occupied by Cro-Magnon Man of the Paleolithic Age: a strong indicator that this language was that of Cro-Magnon Man. Since we are looking at a Stone Age language which survived to the present-day, in making our analysis of this remarkable phenomenon it will be helpful to know where the Cro-Magnon people still live today. So, who were the survivors of Atlantis?. THE SURVIVORS OF ATLANTISGenerally, Cro-Magnon people can be found in certain parts of Western Europe, North Africa and some of the Atlantic Islands today. Physical anthropologists agree that Cro-Magnon is represented in modern times by the Berber and Tuareg peoples of North Africa, the recently extinct Guanches of the Canary Isles, the Basques of northern Spain, some people living in the Dordogne Valley and in Brittany in France; and, some years ago, those living on the Isle d'Oleron. All have the distinguishing Cro-Magnon skulls (Howells, 1967; Lundman, 1967, et. al.). Except for some shrinkage of areas, this is the same distribution pattern for Cro-Magnon as existed in Upper Paleolithic times. The important thing in regard to this particular pattern of distribution is that when the languages of these people are analyzed, it is apparent that they speak languages that are related to each other, but not related to the other languages spoken throughout Europe and the Near East. I have named this family of languages the Berber-Ibero-Basque Complex. The languages involved are very old, going back at least to the Neolithic Age. THE BERBER-IBERO-BASQUE LANGUAGE COMPLEXWhat I will endeavor to show here is that the various dialects of what I believe was the original language of the Atlanteans accompanied the Cro-Magnon people as they swept into the western portions of Europe and Africa. The remains of this phenomenon exist to this day in what I call the Berber-Ibero-Basque Language Complex. This complex stretched from Morocco in North Africa, across Gibraltar into the Iberian peninsula, up into the Dordogne Valley of France, and northward to the British Isles. (Click for Map) If such an Atlantic language did exist, we will have identified the Atlantean language, at least provisionally. At the very least, we can ask if such a unified, widespread language did not come from Atlantis, from where did it come? Professional anthropologists have already postulated, in a classic work on European ethnology, that the Basque people of the Pyrenees Mountains (northern Spain/southern France) speak a language inherited directly from Cro-Magnon Man (Ripley, 1899). To give only two examples of why they made the above postulation, the Basque word for knife means literally "stone that cuts," and their word for ceiling means "top of the cavern" (Blanc, 1854). Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn (1915-1923), declared that the Cro-Magnon people of the Stone Age left two cultural "relics" that survived into modern times: (1) the Berber-speaking Guanches of the Canary Islands, and (2) the unique Basque language of western Europe. And the distinguished British scholar Michael Harrison once wrote: "In support of the theory that Basque, if not an autochthonous language, is at least one of the most primitive languages of Europe, in the sense of its being here before any of the existing others, is the fact that Basque . . . is still a language with no proven congeners" (Harrison, 1974). If Basque was indeed the language of Cro-Magnon Man, it must have once been spoken over a much larger area of Europe than it is now. Today it stands isolated into two tiny linguistic "islands," surrounded by languages totally alien in vocabulary, syntax, and grammatical structure (Saltarelli, 1988). According to Harrison, who has done his homework, Basque did indeed cover a far greater area than it does today. He points out that this fact was recorded by the Carthaginians and Romans (Harrison, 1974). But what about the little-known Iberian language (generally believed to be related to the Berber language of North Africa)? The defunct Iberian language is known to us only through inscriptions (the Iberian script is mainly syllabic, but also partly alphabetic). It was once spoken throughout the entire Iberian peninsula, and through Iberian language specialist William J. Entwhistle (1936) we learn that this language is also related to the modern Basque language. The famous German philologist Wilhelm von Humboldt was convinced of the existence of a single great Iberian people, speaking a distinct language of their own (non-European), and that these ancient Iberian people once extended into southern France, the British Isles, and even among the islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. He also contended that the Basques of modern times are remnants of that "once wide-spread Atlantic seaboard population" (von Humboldt, 1961). F. N. Finch, another German authority on comparative philology, asserts that the modern Basque is simply "a continuation" of the older Iberian language--although this has been contested recently (Hualde, 1991). But even though recent investigators are reluctant to admit to vocabulary equivalence (attributing such to "borrowings" from the Basque), they also know that similarities in language structure is the most telling trait, and that the latter is transparent between all these languages. They know that language structure is an extremely conservative trait, highly resistent to outside influences. Harrison expresses the opinion that both Iberian and Basque originated in Berber country. Why? Because of the affinities which exist between those two languages and the modern Berber tongue. Indeed that Basque should have many words in common with the member of allthe North African group of languages is not surprising, since modern opinion evermore inclines to credit the Basque with a North African origin . . . (Harrison, 1974) But even though these languages are apparently related, why imagine they all originated in North Africa. A quick look at any map with show the geographical proximity of these areas to Atlantis. It may be that none of these needed to "cross" the Straits of Gibraltar. If Cro-Magnon simultaneously appeared on the western shores of both continents, as most physical anthropologists insist, then so did his language. No evidence has been found to indicate that Cro-Magnon's origin was in North Africa (see my page on anthropology), so why would his language originate there? In other words, to bring it down to our terms, if Cro-Magnon originated in Atlantis, so did his language. Linguists have been stunned by the lack of change in these languages over extremely long periods of time. It seems that, language-wise, Cro-Magnon was very conservative! Prof. Johannes Friedrich (1957), a leading linguist of the Free University of Berlin, says that the Berber language has not changed at all in the last two thousand years. From this, one might conclude that the ancient Atlantean language is well enough intact, even after 12,000 years, that it can be identified to a reasonable extent. The fact that Basque has been called "primitive" in no way implies that it is simple or undeveloped. Basque language authorities, such as S.H. Blanc (1854) and J. Morris-Jones (1940), describe Basque syntax as both "complex and orderly". Now to complete the picture. I haven't said anything about the British languages Welch, Erse and Gaelic. Let's take a look. WELCH, ERSE AND GAELICIt appears that the peculiar Basque syntax (word order) is preserved in the modern Welch language. This much is certain. Someone, speaking some language (language X) was already in Great Britain when the first wave of Kelts arrived in about 1800 B.C. The question is, who were they, and what was the language they spoke? Prof. Morris-Jones has answered the above questions by means of an intensive study of the Welch language. Briefly stated, Morris-Jones' theory is that what makes the Welch language so peculiar is because it is composed mainly of a Keltic vocabulary, but the syntax is non-Keltic. After studying the language for most of his life, he has concluded that modern Welch is derived from a principally Keltic vocabulary superimposed upon a much older syntax resembling Basque. He believes this happened as a result of conquest. His theory goes like this: When one people is conquered by another, the conquering warriors usually make wives or mistresses out of the conquered people's women folk. The latter are more or less forced to learn the vocabulary of the conqueror; but syntax is a harder thing to learn, especially when the warrior-husband is gone a lot fighting other battles. The children of these unions are raised by their mothers, and therefore learn the "incorrect" version of the conquerors language from their mothers. Within a few short generations the language as spoken by the women and children at home is considered "correct". This happened when the Lowland Scots had the English language superimposed on the older Gaelic, which gives the Scottish dialect of English its particular flavor. These earliest, 'Basque speaking' inhabitants, are known as Bretons Morris-Jones concluded that the syntax most closely resembling that of Welch is the Berber and Tamachek languages of North Africa (both closely related to Basque). In other words, language X is identified as belonging to our Berber-Ibero-Basque complex, i.e., the Atlantean language. It appears that this earliest language of Britain is found, almost hidden, at the root of the Welsh, Erse and Gaelic languages. So it is almost certain that from Morocco to the British Isles we are dealing with basically one language. If Cro-Magnon Man was as primitive as most people think, he would not have spoken only one language. Look at the uncountable languages of the American Indian, and the thousands of languages existing in equatorial Africa. Each tribe spoke its own language, and sign language had to be resorted to for communication between them. The unity expressed in all Cro-Magnon people, in their art impulse, the tools and weapons, social organization, and in the language they spoke, is eloquent testimony of the high state of civilization attained in their original homeland before becoming refugees fighting for survival. And that homeland must have been the lost Atlantis. TOP of Page BibliographyBlanc, S. H., Grammaire de la Langue Basque (d'apres celle de Larramendi), Lyons & Paris, 1854.Entwhistle, W. J. "The Spanish Language," (as cited in Michael Harrison's work, 1974.) London, 1936.Friedrich, Johannes, "Extinct Languages," (translated from German by Frank Gaynor) published byThe Philosophical Library, New York, 1957.Gans Eric Lawrence, "The Origin of Language," Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, 1981.Geze, L., Elements de Grammaire Basque, Beyonne, 1873.Harrison, Michael, "The Roots of Witchcraft," Citadel Press, Secaucas, N.J., 1974.Hualde, J. I., "Basque Phonology," Routledge, London & New York, 1991.Martins, J. P. de Oliveira, "A History of Iberian Civilization," Oxford University Press, 1930.Morris-Jones, J., In Appendix to "The Welch Languages," by Sir John Rhys, London, 1939.Osborn, Henry Fairfield, "Men of the Old Stone Age," New York, 1915-1923.Renan, Ernest, De l'Origine du Langage, Paris, 1858; La Societe' Berbere, Paris, 1873.Ripley, W. Z., "The Races of Europe," D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1899.Saltarelli, M., "Basque," Croom Helm, New York, 1988.von Humboldt, K. W., "Iberia," Encl. Brit., vol. 12, William Benton Publ., London, 1961 edition. Ancient Writings | Anthropology | Archeology | HOME | Geology | Mythology | Paleontology Copyright © 1979 by R. Cedric LeonardIssued by Atlantek Software, Inc.Version 1.2: Updated 1 May 2003.